There are many ways to define Artificial Intelligence, but the simplest of all is: “Ability of a machine to think and learn like humans.”
History Of Artificial Intelligence:
It’s not been more than a century, that Artificial Intelligence was just a philosophy. In the first half of the 20th century, it was introduced in books like Rossum’s Universal Robots by Karel Capek in 1920. Isaac Asimov wrote Runaround in 1942. There were several scientists working to make AI a reality. But Alan Turing a British Polymath gave mathematical possibilities in 1950.
The first working AI program was written in 1956 by researchers Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon’s. It was named as Logic Theorist, this program was able to do automatic reasoning. This program was presented at Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, hosted by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky in 1956. Unfortunately, this exhibition went into loss. AI has faced two downfalls in its history. Both of them were due to a lack of funding. These downfalls are known as AI winter. The first winter was from 1974 to 1980. Then it came in 1987 and lasted up to 1993. It popped up again in 1997 when Deep Blue became the first computer to defeat the Russian Chess grandmaster. Deep Blue was made by IBM. This was the rise of AI.
Types of Artificial Intelligence:
There are three types of AI in terms of ability :
• Narrow AI (Weak AI)
• General AI
Narrow Artificial Intelligence:
Narrow AI is limited to do a specific task. It cannot cross its limits as it is designed for a particular task. This also the achieved form of AI. Apple’s Siri is an example of Narrow AI. It cannot perform tasks beyond its functionality. Speech recognition, image recognition, self-driving cars are also exampling of Narrow AI.
General Artificial Intelligence:
If a machine can do a task with the efficiency equal to a human than this AI is termed as General AI. But scientists are still working to make General AI a reality.
Super Artificial Intelligence:
After General AI comes Super AI. In this a AI machine will be able to perform tasks better than a human. These machines will have all the abilities that of a human, like think, reason, judge, make plans, do conversation on its own, etc.
AI in use:
AI is being applied in various fields of our daily life. Let’s discuss a few of them.
AI is being applied in the medical field so that it can be known in advance that which type of disease is going to be cured. If it is known then preparation can be made before the patient is hospitalized.
When we play games like chess on a computer that machine uses AI, as the game is strategic, the machine will have to think of a large number of possible placements.
For the sake of better performance, few industries are providing virtual assistants. For instance, Tesla’s Tesla Bot a reliable virtual assistant.
Generally, robots were programmed in such a way that they were able to do some repetitive tasks. But with the help of AI, we can create robots that can perform tasks based on their experience. In the current era, we can see humanoid robots. These robots can behave and react like humans. Recently developed robots were named as Erica and Sophia.
AI is also applied in entertainment. If a person is using an entertaining site like Netflix, then he will get recommendations according to his taste. This is done with the help of AI algorithms.
A program can be made to grade the tests automatically. Chat bots are communicating with the students. As it is age of online learning, we can see virtual teaching assistants as their future. It can work as a personal tutor, which will be available anywhere at any time.
Future with Artificial Intelligence:
With the progress in the world of AI, humans will not have to do repetitive and boring tasks. The world will be automatic. As an example, we can see smart homes. Also, there will be fewer human employees, so, in that case, knowledge of technology will be essential.